Easy language, precision, perfection, to-the-point, top-scoring are the qualities that make the 2nd year English notes book 2 question answer stand superior

2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer (Chapter 1 to 15)


Easy language, precision, perfection, to-the-point, top-scoring are the qualities that make the 2nd year English notes book 2 question answer stand superior
Easiest, Top-scoring 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer

Didn’t you feel the difference? Easy language, precision, perfection, to-the-point and top-scoring are some of the qualities which make the 2nd year English notes book 2 question answer stand apart and superior to the rest.

The Part II Book II question answer notes aim at making preparation for exams ‘easier than easiest’ for you while precisely focusing on the exam requirements. So, you can rest assured to score 100% while enjoying an extra ease.

Presently questions from the exercise at the end of each chapter in the textbook have been included/attempted. More/additional questions will be added later.

2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer (Chapter 1 to 15)

1. The Dying Sun (Sir James Jeans) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 1

Q. 1: How is it that a star seldom finds another star near it?

Answer: In the vastness of the universe, the distances between the stars are so great that a star seldom finds another star near it.

Q. 2: What happened when, according to Sir James Jeans, a wandering star, wandering through space, came near the sun?

Answer: According to Sir James Jeans, when a wandering star came near the sun, it raised a big wave of gases on its surface.

Q. 3: What happened when the wandering star came nearer and nearer?

Answer: As the wandering star came nearer and nearer, the wave of gases became higher and higher and broke to pieces.

Q. 4: What are planets and how did they come into existence?

Answer: The planets are the celestial bodies that orbit the sun. They came into existence when the wave of gases on the surface of the sun broke to pieces and started orbiting the sun.

Q. 5: Why is there no life on the stars?

Answer: There is no life on stars because they are so hot that everything would melt away there. Life can exist in moderate conditions.

Q. 6: Write a note on the beginning of life on the earth.

Answer: According to Sir James Jeans, first appeared a single living organism. Through gradual development, it changed into human beings.

Q. 7: Why is the universe, of which our earth is a part, so frightening? Give as many reasons as you can.

Answer: Wide distances, long stretches of time and no signs of life elsewhere make the universe frightening.

Q. 8: What, in your opinion, should be the conditions necessary, for the kind of life we know to exist on other heavenly planets? Do such conditions generally exist?

Answer: Moderate temperature, air and water are necessary for life to exist. Such conditions generally do not exist elsewhere.

Also read: Easiest Ever Question Answer Book 1 First Year English Notes

2. Using the Scientific Method (Darrel Barnard & Lon Edwards) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 2

Q. 1: How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?

Answer: The scientific method has helped us to fight diseases through vaccination, eating fresh food, drinking clean water and living in a clean environment.

Q. 2: Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago.

Answer: Today people live in clean environment with paved streets and sealed pipes for dirty water in cities. A hundred years ago, streets were dirty, unpaved, and poorly drained streets.

Q. 3: What are the sanitary conditions like in our villages today and how would you improve them?

Answer: There are poor sanitary conditions in our villages with narrow, unpaved streets and outdoor toilets. They can be improved through the services of a sanitation department.

Q. 4: How has the scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?

Answer: The scientific method has helped us to increase the production of food through the use of machinery. Similarly, we can preserve food through freezing, pickling, grading and canning.

Also read: The Rain Poem Summary 1st Year/10th with Complete Notes

Q. 5: We are now generally less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?

Answer: Our ancestors were superstitious. They were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13.

Q. 6: How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?

Answer: The scientific method has enabled us to get over the old fears through change in our thinking habits. We know there is a solid reason behind every happening.

Q. 7: What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples.

Answer: Astrology played an important role in the lives of men and women in the past. They predicted coming events based on the movements of starts.

Q. 8: Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?

Answer: People cut off their journey if a cat crosses their way. They expect a guest when a crow caws on the wall. Such superstitions are still current in our country.

Also read: 21 Important 1st Year English Letters Notes 2020, FA/FSC

3. Why Boys Fail in College (Herbert E. Hawkes) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 3

Q. 1: According to the author there are some boys who fail because they do not try. Who are they? Can we help them?

Answer: Such boys might be having an unhealthy lifestyle or suffering from a psychological disorder. We can suggest them ways to improve lifestyle and mental health.

Q. 2: How does mistaken ambition on the part of boys and their parents lead to the failure of the boys?

Answer: A mistaken ambition forces the students to choose subjects they are not interested in. They don’t perform well and fail.

Q. 3: There are some boys who have done well at school but fail to make their mark at college. Who are they? Do you have such boys in colleges in your country?

Answer: Some intelligent students who pass the school examination without any hard work try to do the same in college. But they fail at college. Yes, there are such boys in our colleges.

Q. 4: How does financial pressure lead to the failure of students described in the lesson? Do you have similar cases in your country?

Answer: When students earn while learning, they can’t give enough time to their education. So, they fail. Yes, we have similar cases in our country.

Also read: 25 Comprehension Passages with Questions and Answers 9th

Q. 5: To what extent does the question of health lead to failure at college? How far can the college authorities with their medical officers help students in such cases?

Answer: Bad health severely affects learning and leads to failure at college. College authorities with their medical officers can provide counselling and medical assistance to students in such cases.

Q. 6: What place would you accord to sportsmen in colleges?

Answer: While the main purpose of a college is to impart education, it cannot ignore sports. A college can also produce good sportsmen.

Q. 7: There are some students who join college for the fun of it. Should they be allowed to stay?

Answer: The students who join college for the fun of it should be asked to mend their ways. If they don’t, they shouldn’t be allowed to stay.

Also read: 12+ Advantages 8+ Major Disadvantages of Automatic Watches

4. End of Term (David Daiches) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 14

Q. 1: What was the Daiches’ attitude towards the weekend as a school boy? Why did he long for it?

Answer: Daiches felt extremely happy at the weekend. He passionately waited for the weekend. For him, Friday night was the best night of the weekend.

Q. 2: What was his general view of school life?

Answer: Daiches enjoyed the actual class-room work. However, a lot of homework and intense competition pressed him heavily.

Q. 3: He liked holidays for their freedom – freedom from what?

Answer: Holidays gave him freedom from the boring learning activities. A lot of homework and intense competition pressed him heavily.

Q. 4: How did he spend his summer holidays?

Answer: The summer holidays were a long period of bliss for Daiches. He spent the summer holidays in his village.

Q. 5: Wishes don’t come true in this life, writes Daiches. What are the things he longed for but could not have?

Answer: He longed for a tricycle, a bicycle, a cornet and a slider but could not get. He bought his bicycle when he was twenty-one.

Q. 6: What did he do with his pocket money?

Answer: Daiches was not allowed to spend his pocket money according to his will. Like his siblings, he put it into a money box.

Also read: 70+ Advantages of Internet in Points and Essay in Detail

5. On Destroying Books (J. C. Squire) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 5

Q. 1: What sorts of books were presented by the British public to soldiers?

Answer: The books presented by the British public to soldiers included ordinary books, twenty years old magazines, and guides to the Lake District.

Q. 2: Was it interest in soldiers that prompted people’s action, or was it the wish to get rid of old books?

Answer: People had no interest in soldiers. They sent them books because they wanted to get rid of useless books.

Q. 3: Why should be bad books be destroyed?

Answer: Bad books should be destroyed to avoid the trouble of storing them and to make room for new good books.

Q. 4: Why is it difficult to destroy books?

Answer: It is difficult to destroy books because it is not easy to burn them or throw them into the river.

Also read: 6 Easy Direct to Indirect Speech Rules Exercise Class 10

Q. 5: Why could the author not burn the unwanted books?

Answer: The author could not burn the unwanted books in a small kitchen. Each book was to be burnt leaf by leaf and it was a very difficult task.

Q. 6: How did the writer decide to get rid of his books?

Answer: The writer decided to get rid of his books by throwing them into the river. He went out to the river with a sack of books.

Q. 7: Describe the author’s midnight venture to throw the books in the river and the suspicions which his action was likely to arouse.

Answer: At midnight, he was fearful that a policeman would take him for a thief or arrest him as a baby killer. But finally, he threw the books into the river.

Q. 8: How did the writer muster up courage at last to fling the books into the river?

Answer: When the writer thought that it would be difficult for him to carry the books back home, he mustered up courage and threw the books into the river.

Q. 9: Did the writer come to have a feeling for those books once he had got rid of them?

Answer: The writer felt sad for the books and thought that the innocent books would lie at the bottom of the river and they would be covered with mud.

Also read: Score 8/8, Fast-to-Learn 9th Class English Letters Notes

6. The Man Who Was a Hospital (Jerome K. Jerome) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 14

Q. 1: How did Jerome K. Jerome come to suspect that his liver was out of order? What were the diseases he thought he was suffering from on reading a book on the treatment of diseases?

Answer: Jerome K. Jerome suspected that his liver was out of order because he thought he had all the symptoms of the disease. After reading the book, he thought that he had typhoid fever, scarlet fever, cholera, diphtheria, gout, zymosis, Bright’s disease and St. Vitus’ dance, etc.

Q. 2: What was the disease the writer discovered he didn’t have?

Answer: Housemaid’s knee was the only disease the writer did not have. He was unhappy for not having this disease.

Q. 3: What was the first reaction of the writer when he thought that he was suffering from all diseases?

Answer: The writer sat frozen with horror for some time. The more he read, the more shocked he was.

Q. 4: Why should the writer be an acquisition to the medical class?

Answer: The writer should be an acquisition to the medical class because he had all the diseases except one. Students could learn all about various diseases.

Q. 5: Describe the writer’s visit to the medical man?

Answer: The writer told the doctor his problem. He looked down into his mouth, felt his pulse, hit him over the chest, butted him, and wrote out the prescription.

Q. 6: The writer thought that he was doing the doctor a good turn by going to him. Why?

Answer: The writer thought himself to be suffering from all the diseases, so the doctor would get more practice out of him than out of seventeen hundred ordinary patients.

Q. 7: What was the prescription given to him by the doctor?

Answer: The doctor prescribed 1 lb. beefsteak every 6 hours, 10 miles morning walk, sleep at 11 every night and not to stuff his head with things he couldn’t understand.

Q. 8: Describe the writer’s visit to the chemist.

Answer: The writer gave the chemist the prescription. The latter replied he did not have the required things because he was not running a co-operative store and a family hotel combined.

Q. 9: What is the significance of the doctor’s advice: “Don’t stuff your head with the things you don’t understand”?

Answer: The doctor’s advice is very significant because if we stuff our head with the things we don’t understand, the result will be confusion or chaos.

Also read: To-the-Point, Top Scoring 10th English Question Answer

7. My Financial Career (Stephen Leacock) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 7

Q. 1: What light do the following expressions throw on Leacock’s state of mind when he entered the bank: ‘looked timidly round’, ‘shambled in’?

Answer: The expressions like ‘looked timidly round’ and ‘shambled in’ show that Leacock was confused, fearful and nervous. He had no idea what to do.

Q. 2: Why did the manager come to think that Leacock had an awful secret to reveal?

Answer: Leacock’s strange facial expressions, solemn behavior and mysterious manners made the manager think that he had an awful secret to reveal.

Q. 3: What was the attitude of the manager towards Leacock on learning that he only wished to deposit 56 dollars in the bank?

Answer: Leacock seemed to be a manager to the manager. But when the manager learnt that he only wished to deposit 56 dollars, he was disappointed and became cold.

Q. 4: What other blunders did Leacock commit after leaving the manager’s office?

Answer: Leacock entered the safe, gave money to the accountant in an absurd way, deposited 56 dollars instead of 50, and posed to be angry instead of admitting his mistake.

Q. 5: After this misadventure in the bank where did Leacock keep his money?

Answer: After this misadventure in the bank, Leacock began to keep his money in his sacks, though there was the risk of losing it.

Q. 6: Give as many examples as you can to show that Leacock was feeling completely lost in the bank all the time he was there.

Answer: Leacock was completely lost in the bank all the time he was there. For example, he entered the safe, gave money to the accountant in an absurd way, deposited 56 dollars instead of 50, and posed to be angry instead of admitting his mistake.

Also read: Easiest, Best Scoring 9th Class English Question Answer

8. China’s Way to Progress (Galeazzo Santini) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 14

Q. 1: Why has the world changed its attitude towards China?

Answer: The world gave little value to China. But once the Chinese made tremendous progress in every field of life, the world changed its attitude to their country.

Q. 2: Discuss Chinese agriculture system.

Answer: The Chinese still carry on traditional labour and carefully use agricultural machinery. There are agricultural communes which are divided into production brigades and teams.

Q. 3: How does China rely on its own resources?

Answer: The Chinese follow the maxim of Mao, “Rely on your own resources”. They use locally made machines which are cheaper, faster and give better results.

Q. 4: Describe a day in the life of a Chinese student.

Answer: A Chinese student like Je Wen Siu gets up at 6 in the morning, takes breakfast and goes to school at 8. She takes lunch during the break and returns home at 3. She does her home task, reads newspaper and listens to the radio.

Q. 5: Write a note on the Chinese women.

Answer: Chinese women use no beauty products. They work 8 hours a day, get 56 paid holidays before childbirth and enjoy free hospitalization.

Q. 6: What are the social security benefits provided to the Chinese workers?

Answer: They get free housing, medical treatment and cinema tickets. A sick worker gets full pay for 6 months and 60 percent of it after that. Females get 56 paid holidays before childbirth.

Q. 7: “It is the people not the things that are decisive.” Discuss.

Answer: This statement negates the modern concept that a great population is a burden on the state. People are the power of the state. If each Chinese gives 1 dollar, it will make roughly 800 million dollars.

Q. 8: Why will Chou-En-Lai get his right hand dislocated?

Answer: Chou-En-Lai will get his right hand dislocated if he keeps shaking it with hundreds of delegates who visit China.

Q. 9: “The heart of the matter is the need to root out selfishness.” Discuss.

Answer: This statement negates the idea of Thomas Hobbes that everyone is selfish. The Chinese work for the collective benefits and have become a compact whole.

Also read: 70+ Passive Voice Exercises with Answers, 10 Differences

9. Hunger and Population Explosion (Anna McKenzie) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 9

Q. 1: What does hunger mean on a large scale as viewed by the author?

Answer: As viewed by the author, hunger means never having enough to eat. Hunger does not mean missing one meal or even meals for a whole day.

Q. 2: Describe some great famines of the past.

Answer: Egyptian famine lasted for 7 years. Europe faced famines in 350 different years. China faced 90 famines in one century. Famines in Russia, Bengal and Bombay killed millions of people. India in 1964-65 faced the worst famine of the century.

Q. 3: How do famines occur?

Answer: Famines occur when crops fail due to some disease or lack of rain and yield no grain for the people to eat.

Q. 4: What is the main reason for population increase today?

Answer: The main reason for population increase today is the increase in birth-rate and a decrease in death-rate due to disease control.

Q. 5: What is meant by birth-rate and death-rate, and how do they affect the population of a country?

Answer: The ratio by which babies are born is called birth-rate. The ratio by which people die is called death-rate. Increase in birth-rate and decrease in death-rate cause population growth.

Q. 6: What have public-health measures to do with increase in population?

Answer: Public-health measures help control fatal diseases and decrease death-rate. So, the population increases.

Q. 7: Account for the high birth-rate in under-developed countries.

Answer: The high birth in under-developed countries is due to ignorance. People continue to produce children without realizing the problems of a big family.

Q. 8: Why is birth-rate not so high in the more advanced countries?

Answer: The educated people in these countries keep their family small because they are aware of the problems of a big family. So, the birth-rate is not so high there.

Q. 9: Give a brief account of the poor economic conditions prevailing in under-developed countries.

Answer: The cities of under-developed countries are teeming with beggars. There are few factories, hospitals, schools and colleges there.

Also read: Here’s How Fashion and Culture Vie for Influence & Space

10. The Jewel of the World (Philip K. Hitti) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 14

Q. 1: Give an account of the early career of Abd-al-Rahman I, his dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa.

Answer: To escape his enemies, Abd-al-Rahman jumped into the river and swam to save his life. In North Africa, he barely escaped assassination. His maternal uncle offered him refuge.

Q. 2: How did Abd-al-Rahman deal with the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph to contest his rule?

Answer: He killed the governor, cut off his head, preserved and wrapped it in a black flag and sent it to the Abbasid caliph as a gift.

Q. 3: What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?

Answer: The Abbasid caliph said, “Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe!”

Q. 4: What did Abd-al-Rahman do to make himself strong and to beautify his capital?

Answer: He developed a highly trained army of around 40,000 Berbers. To beautify his capital, he built a palace, a wall and an aqueduct to supply pure water to the capital.

Q. 5: Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd-al-Rahman III.

Answer: Cordova became the most cultured city of Europe. Agriculture, wool, silk, glassware, pottery, steel works and leather industries flourished there.

Q. 6: What did Al-Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?

Answer: Al-Hakam set up 27 free schools, enlarged the mosque which housed the university of Cordova, invited professors from the East and gathered 400,000 books in the library.

Also read: 30+ Advantages/Disadvantages of Fashion Essay in Detail

Short Answers to Questions English Book II, 12th Class (Part II)

11. First Year at Harrow (Sir Winston S. Churchill) – 2nd Year English Chapter 11 Question Answer Book II

Q. 1: The writer says that the examiners ask questions which students cannot answer and not those which they can answer. Is the complaint just?

Answer: No, the complaint is not just. Hardworking students can answer all the questions. The writer could not answer questions about Latin and Mathematics because he didn’t like these subjects.

Q. 2: What sort of questions are asked by your examiners?

Answer: Our examiners ask questions from the given syllabus. The questions are mostly aimed at stirring creativity. The students dependent on cramming might find them difficult.

Q. 3: Why did not Churchill do well in examinations?

Answer: Churchill was interested in poetry and essay writing but examiners put more emphasis on Latin and Mathematics. So, Churchill could not do well in examination.

Q. 4: How did he (Churchill) do his Latin paper?

Answer: Churchill did not attempt any question in his Latin paper. In two hours, he only wrote his name and question ‘1’ and put a bracket around it.

Q. 5: Churchill was taught English at Harrow and not Latin and Greek. Was it a gain or loss?

Answer: It was not a loss for Churchill. Rather his fellow students who were good at Latin and Greek had to come down to English to earn their living.

Q. 6: What good did his three years stay at Harrow do him?

Answer: During his three years stay at Harrow, Churchill learnt English grammar thoroughly which helped him a lot in practical life.

Q. 7: In after years how did the knowledge of English stand him in good stead?

Answer: The knowledge of English helped Churchill a lot in his practical life. He had no difficulty in the daily affairs of life and became a successful politician.

Q. 8: Write an appreciation or criticism of Churchill’s views in regard to the study of Latin, Greek and English and their value in earning a living.

Answer: Churchill was right in his decision to prefer English over Latin and Greek. It was to become an international language and serve as a source of earning a living.

Also read: Best of the 100 Greatest Inventions of the 21st Century

12. Hitch-Hiking Across the Sahara (G. F. Lamb) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 14

Q. 1: Give an idea of the size of the Sahara. How does the writer compare it with England?

Answer: The Sahara occupies the complete width of North Africa. According to the writer, it will be difficult to find England if it is placed in the middle of the Sahara.

Q. 2: What had Christopher’s foster-mother to do with his desire to see distant place?

Answer: Christopher’s foster-mother threatened him to send him to Timbuktu. Instead of alarming him, the threat stirred in him a desire to visit distant places of the Sahara.

Q. 3: How did Christopher manage to get a seat in the weapons carrier?

Answer: Christopher produced a permit from the War Ministry to get a seat in the weapons carrier. The permit had a stamp of cancellation, but the lieutenant could not see it.

Q. 4: What was the most noticeable feature of the desert city, named Ghardaia?

Answer: Flies were in plenty in the desert city, named Ghardaia. Food and children’s faces were always covered with flies.

Q. 5: How did they manage to drive the heavy truck in the trackless desert with its soft sand?

Answer: They placed strips of steel mesh before the wheels to make a runway for the truck on the soft land of the trackless desert.

Q. 6: What did the driver of the truck tell Christopher about three Englishmen who had attempted to cross the desert?

Answer: The driver of the truck told Christopher about three Englishmen who died while crossing the desert. Their car was stuck in the sand. They drank water from radiator and oil.

Q. 7: Give an account of the little town, named El Golea, and compare it with In Salah, bringing out the difference between the two.

Answer: El Golea was a true oasis with plenty of water and fruit trees. On the other hand, In Salah was fighting for its survival. Here the palm trees looked like bushes.

Q. 8: What do you know of Professor Claude Balanguernon? How did he save the hero’s life towards the end of hitch-hike?

Answer: Professor Claude Balanguernon was a Frenchman. He was educating the Taureg people. He saved Christopher’s life by contacting the Desert Patrol for help. They found Christopher at In Abbangarit.

Q. 9: Describe the events leading to the killing of a camel. What sort of water did they get from its stomach?

Answer: Christopher and his companions could not get water from a well because it was dry. So, they killed a camel and got water from its stomach. It was greenish and looked like blood.

Q. 10: Describe the journey through the Land of Thirst and Death.

Answer: At the Land of Thirst and Death, they faced a violent sandstorm and saw twenty large vultures. Here they killed a camel to get water.

Q. 11: Describe the stay at In Abbangarit. How did Christopher manage to get water from there?

Answer: At In Abbangarit, they found a mud structure with a roof. Christopher tied a metal teapot with the wire of his recording machine to draw water from the well that was 276 meters away.

Also read: What Is Fashion Essay with Types, Trends, and Importance

13. Sir Alexander Fleming (Patrick Pringle) – 2nd Year English Chapter 13 Question Answer Book II

Q. 1: What are antiseptics and what is the antiseptic method?

Answer: Antiseptics are the chemical substances that kill germs. The antiseptic method is the use of antiseptics to prevent an infection.

Q. 2: What was the chief defect of antiseptic method?

Answer: The chief defect of the antiseptic method was that it destroyed the cells of the body while killing germs. It did more harm than good.

Q. 3: What part is played by the white cells in the blood of a human body?

Answer: The white blood cells form the body’s natural defense system against diseases. They kill germs as they enter the body.

Q. 4: Give an account of the early life of Fleming.

Answer: Alexander Fleming was born in England in 1881. He got his early education in a village school. At fourteen, he went to London for higher studies. At sixteen, he got a job as a clerk in a shipping firm.

Q. 5: Describe how Fleming discovered penicillin.

Answer: Fleming was growing colonies of germs on culture plates. When a piece of fungus accidently dropped on the plates, the germs around it began to disappear. Fleming called it penicillin.

Q. 6: In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?

Answer: While chemical antiseptics harm white blood cells, penicillin has no toxic effect on these cells. So, penicillin is better than the chemical substances.

Q. 7: What do you know of the Oxford team?

Answer: The Oxford team was a group of trained chemists and bacteriologists. They used new tools to successfully produce a practical concentration of penicillin.

Q. 8: How did they (the Oxford team) make penicillin more effective?

Answer: In its crude form, penicillin could not be used for the treatment of a disease. The Oxford team made penicillin more effective by concentrating it.

Q. 9: Write a note on penicillin as a wonder drug.

Answer: Penicillin was hailed as a wonder drug. It was very effective in the healing of war wounds and saved countless lives.

Q. 10: Was Fleming proud of his discovery?

Answer: Fleming was not proud of his discovery. He said, “I did not do anything. Nature makes penicillin. I just found it.”

Q. 11: Why couldn’t penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of America?

Answer: Penicillin couldn’t have been discovered in the research laboratories of America because they were dustless and sterilized. There was no way for a mold to drop on a culture plate.

Q. 12: Fleming’s achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field. What are they?

Answer: Fleming’s achievement paved the way for the discovery of new drugs made by Nature. One of them is streptomycin. Fleming regarded it as the most important result of his work.

Also read: Award-winning Persuasive Speech on Poverty for Students

14. Louis Pasteur (Margaret Avery) – 2nd Year English Notes Book 2 Question Answer Chapter 14

Q. 1: Describe the early life of Pasteur.

Answer: Pasteur was born in France in 1822. He graduated in Science and Arts from Besancon. At the age of twenty-six, he became Deputy Professor of chemistry in the University of Strasburg.

Q. 2: Give some instances of Pasteur’s patriotism.

Answer: As a true patriot, Pasteur enrolled himself in the National Guard. Once he gave all his wealth at an altar. When Germany started war with France, he returned the Degree of Medicine to the University of Bonn.

Q. 3: What do we mean by spontaneous generation?

Answer: Spontaneous generation is also called autogenesis. It means life can come into being from non-living materials. Pasteur proved it wrong.

Q. 4: How did Pasteur prove that spontaneous generation was not a fact?

Answer: Pasteur did an experiment to prove spontaneous generation wrong. He observed that bacteria did not develop in a substance that was sufficiently heated to destroy all life in it.

Q. 5: Describe the importance and popularity of the silkworm industry in France. What help did Pasteur render in curing the silkworm diseases in his country?

Answer: People talked about Silkworms in their greetings. Every family had a room to rear silkworms. Pasteur found out the cause of the silkworm disease. He advised people to only keep eggs laid by healthy worms and improve hygiene.

Q. 6: How did Pasteur discover the treatment for the cattle disease, Anthrax?

Answer: He grew and used weakened germs of anthrax to develop immunity in cattle against the disease. This saved millions of animals.

Q. 7: How did Pasteur discover the method of making vaccines?

Answer: Pasteur inoculated the birds with dead or dying germs of fowl-cholera. They recovered after slight ailment. When he inoculated the birds with healthy germs, they did not fall it. So, he discovered the method of making vaccines.

Q. 8: Give an account of Pasteur’s treatment of Hydrophobia and how he cured the first patient suffering from it?

Answer: Pasteur introduced attenuated spinal cord of a rabid rabbit into dogs. They became immune to hydrophobia/rabies. He applied same treatment to a boy bitten by a mad dog and he was cured.

Q. 9: How did Pasteur show the way to other scientists. Give and account of the discoveries.

Answer: Pasteur’s work showed the way to other scientists. They discovered the germs of tuberculosis, typhoid, Malta fever, diphtheria and lock-jaw. They also discovered inoculation treatments for typhoid and plague.

Also read: All 40 – Translation Paragraph Urdu to English 10th Class

15. Mustafa Kamal (Wilfred F. Castle) – 2nd Year English Chapter 15 Question Answer Book II

Q. 1: What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after the World War I?

Answer: After the World War I, the Turkish government in Istanbul and the Padishah were eager to cooperate with the allies to ensure cease-fire.

Q. 2: Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia?

Answer: The Turks started a revolt against the Allies in Eastern Anatolia. Mustafa Kamal was sent there to put down the revolt.

Q. 3: What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire?

Answer: The Turkish patriots were angry at the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire. It was a flame burning in the hearts of men and women.

Q. 4: Write a note on Mustafa Kamal’s activities in Anatolia?

Answer: Mustafa Kamal motivated people for revolt, built up an army and started guerrilla war against Greeks. He suggested to form government at Anatolia.

Q. 5: Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Constantinople?

Answer: When Mehmet came to know of Mustafa Kamal’s revolt against the Allies and guerrilla war against Greeks, he ordered him to return to Constantinople.

Q. 6: What was Mustafa Kamal’s reply?

Answer: In his reply, Mustafa Kamal urged Mehmet to come over to Anatolia and lead revolt against the Allies. He warned that it was the last chance to save the Turkish Nation.

Q. 7: How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia for himself?

Answer: He devised a plan and urged the Nationalists to shift their activities to Istanbul and put Mustafa Kamal’s ideas in practice. But his plan to regain Anatolia for himself failed.

Q. 8: Why did his plan fail?

Answer: Mustafa Kamal saw through Mehmet’s plot. He did not trust his promises. He continued work in Anatolia. So, Mehmet’s plan failed.

Q. 9: What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?

Answer: The Allies wanted all the Arab provinces to be Mandated Territories. The Eastern Anatolia, Izmir, Cicilia and Istanbul were to go to different European countries.

Q. 10: Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat.

Answer: The Greeks fought with Turks for fourteen days. They were defeated and started to retreat on the 12th of September, 1921.

Q. 11: Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul.

Answer: Mehmet came out of his palace in Istanbul and sat in a British motor. The car drove away. He was on his way to exile.

Q. 12: Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal with reference to (1) the position of women, (2) removal of illiteracy, (3) change in dresses, (4) adaptation of the Roman script and (5) the industrial and economic development.

Answer: Mustafa Kamal introduced many reforms. His reforms include:

Position of Women:

He wanted women to get higher education and receive the same degrees as men.

Removal of Illiteracy:

For the removal of illiteracy, he introduced a simplified Roman script and taught the people how to use it.

Change in Dresses:

He abolished the wearing of Fez (a head-dress) and introduced hats. He also abolished wearing of veil by women.

Adaptation of the Roman Script:

He replaced the old script with a simplified Roman script. He taught the people how to use it and fixed a date for everyone to learn it.

Industrial and Economic Development:

Mustafa Kamal built new roads, railways and factories. He organized banking system and reduced debt to one-tenth of its former size.

Q. 13: Sum up in a few sentences the work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation-builder.

Answer: As a great nation-builder, Mustafa Kamal united his people and defeated the Greeks. He introduced many social, economic and industrial reforms. He reduced debt to one-tenth of its former size.

Also read: 11 Tips to Translate English to Urdu, Translation Exercises

Request to Readers

You are requested to give your feedback about the 2nd year English notes book 2 question answer. Your suggestions for the further improvement of the Book II question answer notes or any other content are highly welcome.